Science News posted an article about unusual archaeological findings – smaller objects they now believe were children’s toys. This reconstruction of a spinning disk from about 14,000 to 21,000 years ago in Western Europe shows an animal in different positions on each side. As the disk is twirled on a string, the creature appears to move.
Re-emerged in the 1800s as the thaumatrope.
But – 14,000 years ago! How much knowledge those ancient tribes must have had, how much was lost we may never know.
I think the thaumatrope is a great way to start thinking about frame by frame movement in animation, and even my youngest animation students enjoy making these.